The term Bentonite was first used for a clay found in about 1890 in upper cretaceoustuff near Fort Benton, Montana. The main constituent, which is the determinant factor inthe clay's properties, is the clay mineral montmorillonite. This in turn, derives its namefrom a deposit at Montm. The term Bentonite was first used for a clay found in about1890 in upper cretaceous tuff near Fort Benton, Wyoming. The main constituent, whichis the determinant factor in the clay's properties, is the clay mineral montmorillonite. Thisin turn, derives its name from a deposit at Montmorillon, in Southern France.Foundry
: Bentonite is used as a bonding material in the preparation of molding sand forthe production of iron, steel and non-ferrous casting. The unique properties of bentoniteyield green sand moulds with good flowability, compactability and thermal stability forthe production of high quality castings. Cat Litter
: Bentonite is used for cat litter, due to its advantage of absorbing refuse byforming clumps (which can be easily removed) leaving the remaining product intact forfurther use. Pelletizing
: Bentonite is used as a binding agent in the production of iron ore pellets.Through this process, iron ore fines are converted into spherical pellets, suitable as feedmaterial in blast furnaces for pig iron production, or in the production of direct reductioniron (DRI). Construction and Civil Engineering
: Bentonite in civil engineering applications isused traditionally as a thixotropic, support and lubricant agent in diaphragm walls andfoundations, in tunnelling, in horizontal directional drilling and pipe jacking. Bentonite,due to its viscosity and plasticity, also is used in Portland cement and mortars. Environmental Markets
: Bentonite's adsorption/absorption properties are very usefulfor wastewater purification. Common environmental directives recommend lowpermeability soils, which naturally should ontain bentonite, as a sealing material in theconstruction and rehabilitation of landfills to ensure the protection of groundwater fromthe pollutants. Bentonite is the active protective layer of geosynthetic clay liners. Drilling
: Another conventional use of bentonite is as a mud constituent for oil and waterwell drilling. Its roles are mainly to seal the borehole walls, to remove drill cuttings andto lubricate the cutting head. Oils/Food Markets
: Bentonite is utilized in the removal of impurities in oils where itsadsorptive properties are crucial in the processing of edible oils and fats(Soya/palm/canola oil). In drinks such as beer, wine and mineral water, and in productslike sugar or honey, bentonite is used as a clarification agent. Agriculture
: Bentonite is used as an animal feed supplement, as a pelletizing aid in theproduction of animal feed pellets, as well as a flowability aid for unconsolidated feedingredients such as soy meal. It also is used as an ion exchanger for improvement andconditioning of the soil. When thermally treated, it can be used as a porous ceramiccarrier for various herbicides and pesticides.
: Cosmetics and Medical Markets: Bentonite is used as filler inpharmaceuticals, and due to its absorption/adsorption functions, it allows pasteformation. Such applications include industrial protective creams, calamine lotion, wetcompresses, and antiirritants for eczema. In medicine, bentonite is used as an antidotein heavy metal poisoning. Personal care products such as mud packs, sunburn paint,baby and facepowders, and face creams may all contain bentonite. Detergents
: Laundry detergents and liquid hand cleansers/soaps rely on the inclusionof bentonite, in order to remove the impurities in solvents and to soften the fabrics.